Computer evolution over time




                                                                                              
Introduction :   
 The computer is the computer, in the other sense it is a device that translates the input and output operations to and from the computer, such as writing and activating user commands and operating cylinders, and the present era has developed many of the capabilities of that wondrous device that has introduced a scientific revolution on man and uses this moment in most practical, scientific, commercial and media fields And woo many that computer and information technology is one of the largest electronic systems in the current life, which has a tremendous impact on the progress and development of human life in various areas of life and many proverbs. 
This technology has changed human beings to save many services and products.
 And it has proven leadership in many changing fields in life.
 There is no remaining field of our lives except when the computer has had a great role in renewing, modernizing, or harnessing better time and the progress of the world.   
 The scientific concept of data technology is a relatively new concept.
 It is represented in the use of electronic means in the operations of storing, preserving, restoring, transmitting, and disseminating data instead of the usual traditional means. 
Perhaps the major countries have worked in their technical progress to introduce this technology in education and work with it, and they have made a great way by investing it in the curricula and developing manpower in modernizing technology and exporting it abroad.
If it is important to get acquainted with computer and information science and technology and to acquire the appropriate skills to benefit from it, because of the necessity of this technology in this new day's world.

How did the computer start:

Electronic computers faced stages of global progress at every stage of scientific progress in them and their design and construction vary in each generation according to technological progress in the manufacture of computers and that this pioneering made the enormous world a small world on the computer, and what distinguishes that progress is different from the users from all over the world, the poor and the rich who use Entrepreneurship and development without cost is that he who has a computer and the Internet has the world of data and technology, and that facilitates this moment for all individuals, and we do not give ourselves away with that.



 First-generation (1945-1951):



The computer began with insignificant ideas, not colossal, and incredible size, and established on it the scientists of the opposite world in the development and promised a group of scientists at Harvard University of America to build the first computer called (Mark-1) in which the vacuum valves were used. 
It was large and heavy in weight and its speed was much slower than computers. 
Used at the present time.
 Among the specifications of the computers of that generation is its need to save the necessary cooling devices due to the high temperature of the valves, and their storage capacity ranges between 1000 to 4000 numbers or letters. 
That is the first generation of its kind in a method to global scientific progress.




 Second generation (1952-1960): 



The world advances with the advancement of the computer to the second period, and IBM worked on its production, and programming languages ​​such as Fortran appeared at that stage and the emergence of hard disks that were used to store information.
 At that time, the transistor was used in the design of computers of that generation instead of vacuum tubes because it is smaller in size, consumes less electrical energy, and has greater speed.
 Its storage capacity ranges between 4000 to 32000 numbers or letters, and leadership increases with all capabilities.



 Third generation (1961-1969):



 And the leadership continues to increase the computer with the progress possible, and in that generation, the operating system has been modified, the emergence of the so-called multiprocessing and multiprocessors, the emergence of modern programming languages ​​such as Basic and Pascal, and the emergence of some modern input and output units such as optical readers and color screens.
 Perhaps the computers of that generation relied on integrated circuits that are smaller, faster, and consume less energy, and their storage capacity is not less than three million letters or numbers, and this improves their capabilities. 



Fourth generation (1970-1990):



 Developments in that matter are dealt with and do not stop at that generation. 
Significant developments have been made in terms of operating systems, information transfer, input and output units, and the ability to store and retrieve data at high speed. 
Perhaps this generation was distinguished by the emergence of remote communication units and direct information transfer, as well as responsive disks and computer programs so that any person could operate a computer and deal with it.
 One of the most important features of that generation is the emergence of minuscule computers and microprocessors, and silicon chips are used in the manufacture of computers of that generation.
 It is important in that generation to exaggerate capacity.



Fifth-generation:



We thank God for every hadith that serves mankind in the global scientific progress that appeared in the early eighties. 
Computers of that generation are interested in designing and building computers with astute characteristics to learn concepts and tasks that respond to the surrounding conditions and are able to interact with humans with sound and image.



Explain the concept of the computer:



As it was mentioned in the aforementioned, that we know the computer is a scientific advancement in technology, the computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed in order to process, store and retrieve information and perform mathematical and logical operations on it.

It is extremely beneficial for the computer user to know the meaning of the word Data) InformationThe difference between them:

Information:

It means data and it is the meanings or concepts that humans perceive.

  Data: Means information, which is the outward appearance in which these meanings and concepts are represented.



What distinguishes the computer:



Being able to store a large amount of data in its allocated storage units.

The high speed of consumer computing, processing, inputting, and outputting information

Investment concessions in terms of cost, time, and trade.

 Saving fast internet connection services, which saves time, effort, and cost. Yes, good progress.



 Computer Forms:



· PC ( the Personal the Computer the PC ):



 They are small quantitative and cheap computers that are usually used by a small person or company and are based mainly on a microprocessor.
Its memory capacity varies from one type to another, its analytical capacity is less than other formats, and its storage capacity is (4-10) kilobytes.

There are many types of personal computers to different types, the most important of which are: the desktop computer, the laptop computer, the home computer, and the assistant or handheld computer.



Meager computers ( Minicomputers):



It is faster than a personal computer, has a larger memory capacity, and has a storage capacity of 33 kilobytes, and is used by more than one person at the same time, and is usually used in small companies and companies.



Great computers ( the Main Frames by):



 They are large quantitative computers with high speed and huge memory and are used by many people at the same time. 
This type is very expensive and is usually used in ministries, universities, and large companies.



Computer giant ( the Super Computers,):



 They are special computers with great speed, high capabilities, and extremely expensive, with the ability to run dozens of programs at one time.
 It is usually used for very large scientific research such as space research.



Server ( Server):



 They are computers used in computer networks to become the basic arrangement of the network where information is stored and the network is managed, and these computers must be strong enough to be able to accommodate the huge number of computers on them.



Work station:



 The workstation is similar to the personal computer in that it has a single user, but it differs from it with its enormous capacity for processing, storage, the possibility of multitasking on it, and displaying taxes and colors with high accuracy on the display screen, and therefore it is used in yards that lack high processing capabilities, such as laboratories and factories.



Control Computer:



 This computer is used for special tasks such as controlling and monitoring various devices.



Computer and management practices:



The new methods of using computers in companies are called administrative data systems, which in turn help the departments to interact with each other so that the top management can acquire a complete picture of all the activities of the organization, which is known as the hierarchical construction method from the top to the base, where the computer searches for many purposes.
 One of them is that the computer organizes and reduces the human element in administrative procedures such as copying and keeping books, as well as reducing secretarial errors and providing data for managers and businessmen with great speed, which helps in making administrative judgments quickly.



Other yards to use the computer:



_ Trade and the subsequent acts of banking and warehousing and in examining the activities and movement of financial stores.



_ Managing factories and linking their divergent units.



_    Subject and regulate the practices of hospitals and medical centers or in the medical operations themselves.



_    Issuing engineering designs and drawings.



Education is an easy clarification tool that helps students understand their lessons and present information in an interesting and fun way.



_    Transfer of information and e-mails through the Internet.



_    A strategic and application tool for statistical treatments and judgment.



_  Facilitating and revising changing office procedures.



_ Fun and entertainment through various and widespread computer games.



Conclusion:

Thanks are to God for everything that serves mankind in terms of global scientific progress.
 Every hard-working person working in human leadership is happy to teach people every beneficial and we thank God for the good.                                      

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